I think some of these terms (e.g. latency) might be used in multiple different Bitcoin settings and hence have different meanings but I can give you my understanding of how each term is typically used.

Waiting Time – The time it takes for a transaction that you broadcast to be included in a block (with a single confirmation).

Throughput – The number of transactions a blockchain can process per second. In Bitcoin’s case I think it is approximately 7 transactions per second with blocks mined on average every 10 minutes.

Finality – When a transaction is considered final i.e. it is highly, highly unlikely for a blockchain re-org that would impact that transaction’s inclusion in the blockchain. Typically we consider a transaction final when a transaction has 6 confirmations: it was included in a block and 5 other blocks have since been mined on top of that block.

Latency – The time it takes for a transaction to reach a specified destination (perhaps the entire network, a specific miner or all miners).

Confirmation Time – Used interchangeably with Waiting Time. The time it takes for a transaction to be confirmed (and included in a block) from the point you broadcast it out to the network.

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