Transactions are fairly compact public statements that get broadcast to the network. Miners can see all the information that everyone else can see, no more and no less.
Transactions contain an input list and an output list which specify the UTXOs that get consumed and created. All the addresses associated with the inputs and outputs are public information, but there is no public identity information associated with addresses beyond that. The fee is calculated from the difference between the sum of inputs and outputs, and with the weight of the transaction, the feerate can be calculated.
There are different types of output scripts, some of which are more likely to be used by enterprises than individuals, but no information about the type of entity is encoded in the transaction.